The practice of calorie restriction slows aging across the board. Near every known measure of aging is diminished in calorie restricted mice, and it produces significant health gains in humans. While the short term benefits of calorie restriction are quite similar in all mammals, the long term gain in life span is only large in short-lived species. Understanding why this is the case will require a near complete understanding of cellular metabolism as a whole. Researchers can pinpoint key controlling mechanisms, but the interaction between cellular metabolism and the pace of aging is enormously complex, and far from fully mapped. This is one of the reasons why progress towards calorie restriction mimetic drugs has been so painfully slow and expensive.
The example here is one of many in which calorie restriction is shown to reduce the extent of an issue that accompanies aging. Chronic inflammation is a dysregulation of the immune system and associated signaling that has serious consequences over time, accelerating the progression of all of the common age-related conditions. It is particularly damaging in the context of blood vessel walls, where the immune cells known